Page 3 Aqeedah Articles

Islaam vs. Terrorism

Islaam vs. Terrorism

by Shaykh Saalih al Luhaydaan حفظه الله

on September 11, 2004

Introduction to the Shaykh

Our honorable Shaykh Saalih ibn Muhammad al-Luhaydaan حفظه الله تعالى is a member of the Permanent Council of Senior Scholars, Chairman of the Higher Judiciary Council of Saudi Arabia and a lecturer at Masjid al-Haram during Ramadhaan and Hajj. He has also held many important positions which include membership in the Muslim World League.


Our Shaykh حفظه الله started by giving us salaams and saying Khutbatul-Haajah. He went on to say that part of this Deen ( دين – Religion or way of life) of Islaam is that we believe in all of the Messengers: Nooh (Noah), Moosaa (Moses), ‘Eesa (Jesus), Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم and so on – عليهم الصلاة و السلام. All of the prophets – from the first of them to the last of them, they all made the same Da’wah ( الدعوة – call): that we make this Deen sincere to Allaah سبحانه و تعالى.

This Deen was built upon mercy- mercy toward the creation. It was called al-Islaam by Allaah. Al-Islaam is the religion of the ‘Anbiyya’ ( الأنبياء ) i.e. all of the prophets from before. They all called to the ‘Aqeedah ( العقيدة – Creed) of Tawheed ( التوحيد – Pure Monotheism). The da’wah of all the prophets and all the messengers was one, but it may have been that the Sharaa’i’ ( الشرائع – Divine code of law) of each prophet was different but the same call was made by all of them and that was that the Deen should be sincerely for Allaah.

The Mercy of Islaam

Our Messenger, Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم was sent as a mercy for mankind, and he was ordered to call to Allaah only, with no associates, and that He سبحانه و تعالى should be worshipped alone.

قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ {1} اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ {2} لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ {3} وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ كُفُواً أَحَدٌ } {4}

{Say (O Muhammad [sal-Allâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam]): “He is Allâh, (the) One.

Allâh-us-Samad [Allâh – the Self-Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures need, (He neither eats nor drinks)].

He begets not, nor was He begotten. And there is none coequal or comparable to Him.”} [al-Ikhlaas 112:1-4]

The closest of the prophets to Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم was the Prophet ‘Eesa (Jesus) – عليه السلام. Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم was sent to all of mankind and to the whole world and all parts of this earth. He صلى الله عليه و سلم was sent in the same land where Ibraaheem عليه السلام was ordered to build a house for Allaah i.e. in Makkah. The Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم was asked, “Which was first in Islaam, Masjid al-Aqsaa or al-Bayt al-‘Ateeq?” (Al-Bayt al-Ateeq means ‘the ancient house’ and that is al-Masjid al-Haram in Makkah where the Ka’bah is.) The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said that it was in Makkah and there is a difference between them of forty years.[1]

And Allaah سبحانه و تعالى made this nation the best of nations where He said:

كُنتُمْ خَيْرَ أُمَّةٍ أُخْرِجَتْ لِلنَّاسِ تَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَتَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ

{You [true believers in Islaamic Monotheism, and real followers of Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم and his Sunnah (legal ways, etc.)] are the best of peoples ever raised up for mankind; you enjoin Al-Ma’roof (i.e. Islaamic Monotheism and all that Islaam has ordained) and forbid Al-Munkar

(polytheism, disbelief and all that Islaam has forbidden)…} [Aal-Imraan 3:110]

So everything that is evil or that will hurt mankind in any way or form, al-Islaam has already forbidden us from it. As for everything that orders toward good, and having mercy between each other, and calling to all that which is good, then Islaam has already called to it and ordered with it. The Mu’mineen ( المؤمنين – true Believers) were ordered, as Allaah سبحانه و تعالى said in the Qur’aan:

وَيُطْعِمُونَ الطَّعَامَ عَلَى حُبِّهِ مِسْكِينًا وَيَتِيمًا وَأَسِيرًاِ

{And they give food, in spite of their love for it (or for the love of Him), to the Miskeen (the poor), the orphan, and the captive.}[Al-Insaan 76:8]

The Believers were ordered to give precedence over themselves to the miskeen ( مسكين ) i.e. the poor person who is barely making it, and to the yateem ( يتيم ) i.e. the orphan; and both of these as you can see are Muslims, but He also gave it to the Aseer ( أسير i.e. the prisoner of war. The Muslims were ordered to give him precedence over themselves and this is from the Rahmah ( الرحمة – the mercy) of Islaam and what Islaam has brought of good to mankind.

The Justice of Islaam

This Sharee’ah ( شريعة – Legislation) of Islaam has come to bring forth the true goodness to people and show them what mercy really is. From this showing of mercy and the good that Islaam has brought, is that it forbids us from tricking even the enemy or taking advantage of the enemy in a tricky kind of way. This is one of the things that Islaam has forbidden the Muslims from, even with their enemies. Allaah says that He does not like the Khaa’ineen ( الخائنين – the ones who betray), as in:

إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يُحِبُّ مَن كَانَ خَوَّانًا أَثِيمًا

{Verily, Allaah does not like anyone who is a betrayer of his trust, and indulges in crime.} [An-Nisaa’ 4:107]

During one of the battles between الروم (Ar-Room – Byzantine Rome) and Islaam, which took place in Constantinople (what is now Istanbul, Turkey), one of the companions of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم described their fighting by saying: “ We are honorable in our fighting and we do not use trickery or betrayal.” And when ‘Umar رضي الله عنه went to visit Bayt al-Maqdis in al-Quds (Jerusalem) and he wanted to pray, one of the leaders of the Christians told him to pray in the church. He refused and said: “Maybe if I pray in this church, the Muslims will take it over and take it from you”. This is showing the justice of ‘Umar رضي الله عنه that was brought by his Islaam.

And Allaah سبحانه و تعالى has made it easy upon His creation to worship Him, where He has made all of the earth a masjid for them and pure. So even when the Muslims are dealing with the kuffaar (disbelievers), then they deal with them through the Qur’aan and Sunnah, they deal with them with justice as Islaam has ordered. Even with those who are against them, they deal with them with justice and not betrayal. And Allaah سبحانه و تعالى said:

وَلاَ يَجْرِمَنَّكُمْ شَنَآنُ قَوْمٍ عَلَى أَلاَّ تَعْدِلُواْ اعْدِلُواْ هُوَ أَقْرَبُ لِلتَّقْوَى

{…and let not the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. Be just that is nearer to piety…} [Al-Maa’idah 5:8]

And we are ordered to rule with justice as Allaah سبحانه و تعالى said:

وَإِذَا حَكَمْتُم بَيْنَ النَّاسِ أَن تَحْكُمُوا بِالْعَدْل ْ

{…and that when you judge between men, you judge with justice.…} [An-Nisaa’ 4:58]

This is with the Muslims and the non-Muslims. So it is upon us to be just and do not oppress others because of their religion, or their belief. This is an important point that the Shaykh حفظه الله made: We don’t oppress others because of their belief. We have justice between them, so if a Muslim and a non-Muslim such as a Christian, or a Jew, or the people that worship the fire, or anything like this, if there is a case between them and a Muslim, then we must be just. If the haqq ( الحقَ – the truth) was for them, it is given to them and if the haqq was for the Muslim, it is given to the Muslim. We must be just.

And, oppression is haraam ( حرام – forbidden). Oppression is forbidden, whether it is upon a Muslim or a non-Muslim. When Mu’aadh رضي الله عنه was sent to Yemen by Rasoolullaah صلى الله عليه و سلم he said: “Order them to testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allaah, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah. And if they obey you in that, tell them that Allaah has enjoined on them five prayers in each day and night. And if they obey you in that tell them that Allaah has made it obligatory on them to pay the Zakaat which will be taken from their rich and given to their poor. [2]

So you see that Rasoolullaah صلى الله عليه و سلم said to take it from their rich and give it to their poor, not “Take it from their rich and give it to so and so”. He made it for everybody. And he صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “And beware of taking from the best of their money”. [3] So he صلى الله عليه و سلم did not want to oppress the rich people as well, by taking from the best of what they had. And he صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “And be afraid of the curse of an oppressed person because there is no screen between his invocation and Allaah.”[4] So these teachings of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم and the teachings of Islaam in general have removed the slaves from oppression of the other slaves, to the worship of Allaah the Lord of all the slaves.

And from it is showing how the Muslims dealt with the people from before when they were upon some of the lands of the non-Muslims. When they left they gave back what they had taken from them of taxes – the jizyah ( الجزية ) that is put upon the Mushrikeen and the Kuffaar. They gave it back to them and said: “we used to take this from you when we were over your land and protected you but now it is not our right.” So they gave it back.

And also there was an advice given to ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul-‘Azeez, – رحمه الله by one of his advisers, who said: “I see that we take from the people that enter into Islaam new, we take from them taxes because this will help the Muslims in their funds.” So he (‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul-‘Azeez) did not accept this opinion of his. He said: Allaah سبحانه و تعالى sent the Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم as a person that guides and not one that [word unclear -18:48].

As for individuals that make mistakes within the Muslim ummah or any nation, then these mistakes are not upon that nation. They are upon the individual that made them. So if someone makes a mistake in Islaam, then the mistake should not be attributed to the Muslims or taken as a part of Islaam. This is attributed to the person himself.

‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab رضي الله عنه from his justice, is that when it reached him that some of the poor People of the Book were paying the jizya (the tax that is put upon the kuffaar that are in the Muslim lands), or they were trying to pay it but they were poor. He said: “we have not given them justice. Give them from the money of the Muslims because this money that we have is for mankind”. So he was just with them and he did not take their money as they were poor. In fact, he gave them money because he saw that this money was for all of mankind.

It is upon us that we believe in ‘Eesa and Moosaa and the rest of the Prophets عليهم السلام. It is waajib ( واجب– obligatory) upon us to have belief in all of the Messengers as this is from the six pillars of Eemaan ( إيمان – Faith) that are well known. We must believe in each and every one of them; if a person believes in all of the Messengers but leaves one out, such as Nooh or Daawood or any one of them, there is no Islaam for him.

Islaam vs. Terrorism

So after knowing this we turn to terrorism. After we know that Islaam is built upon mercy, then things such as terrifying people, scaring them, blowing their buildings up, destroying lives, destroying property, destroying the money they have, then this is not from Islaam in any way. This is not upon Rahmah, it is refused by Islaam, it is rejected. Whoever has done this, then he has done a great evil. Even if one of the rulers do this, or anyone who has power over the Muslims, then this is part of what he has done from wrong and it is not to be attributed to the Deen of Islaam.

Golden Advice from our Noble Shaykh – Allaah preserve him

My advice to the Muslims is that they understand and know what Islaam is: Islaam is submission to Allaah. Islaam is that you are like a ladder for the slaves of Allaah i.e. you like and you bring them towards good and that which benefits them. And the Muslim, the way he is, is that he is friendly, he is easy to deal with. He truly likes from his heart that which is good for the people. He brings them as much good as he can. He doesn’t make the people think that the Rahmah of Allaah does not extend to them. He reminds them of the Rahmah of Allaah so that they can return to Allaah, and the blessings that Allaah has put over them. So he brings as much as he can to good. He is a ladder for them, and he tries to bring them towards safety and that which will bring them toward al-falaah ( الفلاح ) i.e. victory, and that which will bring them towards as-salaah ( الصلاح ) i.e. righteousness or being upright and good.

He has a certain type of sorrow for the people in their situations. So he feels for the person that is poor and he gives to him, and he has mercy over the orphan, and he gives victory to the one who is oppressed in the correct way and he puts down the one who is oppressing and does not let him oppress or continue in his oppression.

And he returns the haqq with the haqq. Meaning, if something is taken from him, he takes it back, or if somebody takes from his rights then he takes it back like it is. He does not go over bounds in taking back his rights because then this becomes oppression, and it is not permissible for him. And to forgive is better because Allaah سبحانه و تعالى likes that a person forgives, and that is better.

The Muslim, he should exhibit certain manners. He should be upon the best of morals. He should have a feeling toward the people of wanting to bring them toward good, and be sorry for the ones who aren’t upon good or the ones who are less fortunate than him. It is upon the Muslim that they understand Islaam. It is upon the Muslim that they know Islaam, because Islaam does not accept oppression. And fear oppression, because oppression on the Day of Judgment is many Dhulumaat ( ظلمات – darkness).

And in a Hadeeth Qudsi, Rasoolullaah صلى الله عليه و سلم says about Allaah سبحانه و تعالى that Allaah said: “O My slaves! I have made oppression unlawful for Me and unlawful for you, so do not commit oppression against one another. [5]

And the strong does not oppress the weak. The one that is over someone does not oppress him, as well as the rich does not oppress the poor, and so on and so forth.

And my naseehah ( نصيحة –advice) for the Muslimeen is that they stay upon this, calling to Allaah. The Muslim, before anything, he should have the best of manners, the highest of morals, he should know how to connect with the people and be with them before he goes out and calls to Allaah. Because with this he can get closer to the people and he will be able to give them the da’wah, and he can be close to them and have respect for their feelings – those [feelings] which do not contend with Allaah or go against the Sharee’ah of Allaah. This is how the Muslim should be before he can go out and give the da’wah, so that the people can get the best benefit from him, and when he guides them, they benefit and they listen.

And then the Shaykh – Allaah preserve him and bless him – made some du’aa’ ( دعاء – supplication). From it he asked that Allaah سبحانه و تعالى has mercy upon all of His creation, and that He keeps away from them everyone that wants harm for all mankind, and that He keeps away the oppression of the oppressor and the one that wants destruction for the people and he made du’aa’ that Allaah سبحانه و تعالى guides the Muslimeen and that He grant them success in all of their affairs. Aameen ( آمين -Oh Allaah, answer!)


1. Question: There are some who say that suicide bombing is permissible. What is the proof for this? And how do we refute those who say it is permissible?

Answer: As for killing yourself, in Arabic they call this Istishaadiyyah ( استشهادية ) or (the act of) martyrdom. What they call ‘martyrdom’ is (in reality) killing themselves and it is closer to suicide than it is to martyrdom. It is not permissible that an individual kills himself thinking that by killing himself he is giving victory to that which is haqq. This is not called shahaadah (شهادة – martyrdom) in Islaam, because shahaadah is going out and fighting and dying or being killed in the path of Allaah. But in the Islaamic fiqh (jurisprudence) this is not called shahaadah, where you go and kill yourself and you kill or hurt those around you, this is not called shahaadah in Islaam. Wallaahu musta’aan ( و الله المستعان– And Allaah’s assistance is sought).

2. Question: My grandmother is a Catholic Christian and she has statues of ‘Eesa (Jesus) and Maryam (Mary) –Allaah’s peace be upon them – in her home and she worships them and asks them for help. Before Islaam my relationship with her was very strong and it is still very strong. However, when I go visit her I don’t feel comfortable and I know her actions are shirk, so how do I keep my relation with her with the existence of those statues in her home and should I keep my kids away from her?

Answer: Congratulations for entering Islaam. Islaam does not order the child – boy or girl to cut off the parents. And the parents in Islaam are your father and your mother and your father’s father and your mother’s father and your father’s mother and your mother’s mother i.e. the grandparents. (All of these are considered parents in Islaam). So the child is not ordered to cut off his relations with his parents. He deals with them with Ihsaan ( إحسان) i.e. in the best way he can. And Allaah سبحانه و تعالى ordered with this even when they try to gear you toward shirk in the Aayah:

وَإِن جَاهَدَاكَ عَلى أَن تُشْرِكَ بِي مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلَا تُطِعْهُمَا وَصَاحِبْهُمَا فِي الدُّنْيَا مَعْرُوفًا وَاتَّبِعْ سَبِيلَ مَنْ أَنَابَ إِلَيَّ ثُمَّ إِلَيَّ مَرْجِعُكُمْ فَأُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ

{But if they (both) strive with you to make you join in worship with Me others that of which you have no knowledge,

then obey them not, but behave with them in the world kindly, and follow the path of him who turns to Me in repentance

and in obedience. Then to Me will be your return, and I shall tell you what you used to do.} [Luqmaan 31:15]

So deal with them with manners this way: that you are friendly with them and you do what they ask which is good, but you do not submit to them in shirk. And in the Hadeeth: My mother came to me during the lifetime of Allah’s Apostle and she was a pagan. I said to Allah’s Apostle (seeking his verdict), “My mother has come to me and she desires to receive a reward from me, shall I keep good relations with her?” The Prophet said, “Yes, keep good relation with her.” [6]

But again, don’t obey them in shirk but deal with them in the best of manners. And my advice to you is that you tell your grandmother and give her advice that she comes to Islaam and tell her Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم loved ‘Eesa (Jesus-peace be upon him) and that for anyone to become Muslim they have to love ‘Eesa and believe in him or there is no Islaam for him.

3. Question: It is well know that the Salafi position and the Manhaj-us-Salaf is always against terrorism, but there are some kuffaar (disbelievers) who claim that the Salafi position is always in support of terrorism. So how do we refute this false claim?

Answer: A Salafi is one who holds on to the Book and the Sunnah and upon what the Sahaabah ( الصحابة رضي الله عنهم – the Companions of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم. May Allaah be well pleased with all of them) were upon, and those who were after them, and those who were after them, i.e. the Taabi’een and the atba’ Taabi’een ( التابعين and أتباع التابعين ). The Salaf ( السلف -the righteous predecessors) of this Ummah did not accept oppression and transgression. In fact they were upon mercy and ihsaan and justice. And they forbade people from oppressing each other and transgressing each others rights and taking rights from each other. And whoever says something or claims to do something, then it is upon him to present the hujjah ( حجة -the argument) with its proof. It is upon him that he has to establish what he claims with real proof. So whoever attributes this to As-salafiyyah then he has to prove it. As-Salafiyyah is free from terrorism and the terrorists. This is from their own selves. And whoever accuses the Salafiyyeen of being upon this, then it is upon him to have the proof for this. And this is not from Salafiyyah. As a rule, whoever has something to claim then he has to bring forth the proof.

4. Question: Are women’s feet a part of their ‘awrah ( عورة -that part of the body which is illegal to expose to others) and should women cover their feet?

Answer: Yes, she has to cover her feet and she has to cover everything from her body in salaah ( صلاة– prayer) except her face. If in salaah her feet become uncovered then it does not invalidate the Salaah because there is Ikhtilaaf ( الاختلاف -difference) in this affair. And some of the Fuqahaa’ ( الفقهاء – jurists) have said if her feet become uncovered in Salaah then her Salaah does not become nullified but she has to be very protective of keeping them covered whilst in Salaah.

5. Question: How does one develop khushoo’ ( الخشوع –tranquility and humility before Allaah) in his or her prayer?

Answer: The person that wants to obtain this khushoo’ in Salaah has to picture in his mind that he is having a conversation in his Salaah between himself and his Lord. He has to picture that he is having a conversation with the Creator that created him and the Sustainer that sustains him. And he has to picture the honor, the level that this Creator has, who created him and that he is talking to him, and at what level the Creator Allaah سبحانه و تعالى is. And what He has over him of rights and what He has blessed him with from blessings. He has to go back to Allaah سبحانه و تعالى in all his affairs when he is a young man and strong or when he is old and weak. When he has money or when he is poor, he has to return to Allaah. When he is powerful or when he is weak, when he is at a time of ease or when things are getting tough. When he (the one praying) says:

الْحَمْدُ للّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

{All the praises and thanks be to Allaah, the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists} [Al-Faatihah 1:2]

He is thanking Allaah سبحانه و تعالى for all the blessings He has blessed him with and then goes on to:

الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ

{The Most Gracious, the Most Merciful} [Al-Faatihah 1:3]

Where Allaah has had, in so many situations over him, Rahmah and Mercy. And the day that he will stand in front of Allaah, as he goes to:

مالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ

{The Only Owner (and the Only Ruling Judge) of the Day of Recompense (i.e. the Day of Resurrection)} [Al-Faatihah 1:4]

The day that he stands in front of Allaah and he is brought to reckoning. And then when he goes to:

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

{You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything).} [Al-Faatihah 1:5]

Then this need is for Allaah in all his affairs. Allaah is the one that keeps his life sustained. He has to always remember these things when he is in Salaah. He has to picture these things. Picture if you were in front of a king from the greatest of kings or presidents, then you would like to be in front of that creation from the creation of Allaah in the best way. You would have the best manners, you would be in the best shape, and you would have high Himmah ( همّة ). That means you would be very eager in front of this person. So imagine when you are in front of the One Who created all of the creation, Allaah سبحانه و تعالى.


Al-Qur’an was-Sunnah Society of New York

“Don’t Abuse the Concept of Jihaad”

“Don’t Abuse the Concept of Jihaad”

RIYADH, 22 August 2003 — Saudi Arabia’s highest religious authority urged Muslims yesterday to shun extremism and avoid waging unjustified jihaad as the Kingdom cracks down on militants.

In a lengthy statement, Grand Mufti Sheikh Abdul Aziz Al-Sheikh told Saudis to listen to their religious authorities and ignore fanatical interpretations of Islaam.

“One of the fallouts from extremism in understanding Islaam is that some people call for jihaad for the sake of God without justification,” Sheikh Abdul Aziz said.

“These people raise the banner of jihaad to draw the young into their ranks and not to fight for God,” he added.

Militants like Al-Qaeda leader Osama Bin Laden have often called for jihaad against countries they consider “infidel” such as the United States, urging his followers to target Western interests in Saudi Arabia and abroad.

Other militants have also used Islaam as a rallying cry, justifying attacks by saying they are doing God’s will.

“Young Muslims must try and better themselves and their country but not through violence, because Islaam is not a violent religion, it is a merciful religion,” he said.

“A Muslim must understand his religion. It is the duty of the young and the whole Muslim world to know that violence is not a way to achieve reform,” Al-Sheikh said.

The grand mufti emphasized that the struggle against a perceived evil should not lead to a greater evil.

“The Prophet (peace be upon him) told us to combat evil. But there is a general rule to look at both advantages and disadvantages. And if fighting an evil leads to a greater one, then that fight is forbidden,” he said.

The grand mufti said one of the reasons some people attacked and frightened others was ignorance.

“Ignorance is a killer disease because a person thinks that he is right when he is wrong,” he said and stressed the importance of right guidance. “One of the reasons also is mistrust of our scholars. It is people’s duty to trust their scholars and leaders,” he said.

Last week, the Kingdom’s highest Islaamic authority denounced terror attacks in the Kingdom, describing them as “serious criminal acts,” and pledged its full support for the government.

“Acts of sabotage such as bombings, murder and destruction of property are serious criminal acts and an aggression against innocent people… which warrant severe and deterrent punishment,” the Council of Senior Islaamic Scholars said in a statement.

The 17-member council, headed by the grand mufti, declared its support for the actions being taken by the state to track down terrorists in an effort to shield the country from their actions.

The Islaamic body had called on the Saudi people to “stand behind the country’s leadership and their scholars,” at these difficult times in the fight against “evildoers.”

The statement dubbed “misguided and ignorant” those who claim that terrorism was part of jihaad, or holy war. It said people who provide shelter to suspected militants were committing a “grave sin.”

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Categorizing People

Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan


Category: Methodology

Firstly: Categorizing people according to desires and pride, this is prohibited, Allaah the Glorified said:

{O mankind! We created you from a single pair of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, so that you may know one other (not that you may despise each other). Verily the most honored of you in the sight of God is the one who is the most righteous. And God has full knowledge and is well acquainted with all matters.}

The Messenger – صلى الله عليه وسلم – said:

“All of you are from Aadam, and Aadam is from dust, an Arab does not have virtue over a non-Arab, nor does a white person over a black person, [virtue] is only through Taqwaa”

Superiortiy is only through Taqwa, not by colors or nationalities.

Secondly: Categorizing people according to their creed and actions so that each category takes its place and is treated in a befitting manner. This is legislated as people are not all the same; amongst them are disbelievers, believers, hypocrites, the righteous, the sinners etc. This categorization is present in the Book and the Sunnah, and there is no way it can be rejected due to its affirmation in the legislation and reality, a poem reads:

‘There is no cure for the ailment – of one who considers all people as one’

Thirdly: Categorizing the believers according to what Allaah blessed them with in terms of knowledge, faith and actions. This is also present in the Book and the Sunnah, Allaah the Elevated said:

{Those are the Messengers! We preferred some of them to others}

He also said:

{Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home), except those who are disabled (by injury or are blind or lame), and those who strive hard in the Cause of Allaah with their wealth and their lives.}

He said:

{Say: “Are those who know equal to those who know not?”}

{Not equal among you are those who spent and fought before the conquering (of Makkah, with those among you who did so later). Such are higher in degree than those who spent and fought afterwards. But to all Allaah has promised the best (reward).}

Fourthly: Categorizing the believers into Sunnees [followers of the Sunnah] and Bid’ees [innovators] and into believers with complete Eemaan [faith] and believers with incomplete Eemaan, and into upright people and sinners. This is done to put people into their respective places, each category is treated according to what befits it legislatively, and giving them their due rights is legislated; the Messenger of Allaah – صلى الله عليه وسلم – said:

“Place people in their respective places.”

Fifthly: Categorizing disbelievers according to their religions, treating each one according to what Allaah legislated is a necessity and a legislated obligation. The People of the Book have specific rulings, atheists have their own rulings and polytheists have their own rulings in this religion. Concerning the afterlife then they are all in the hell fire if they die upon disbelief, but they have different levels of torment. In any case, one must differentiate between the believers and the disbelievers, the people of the Sunnah and the innovators, Allaah said:

{Verily, those who believed, and emigrated and strove hard with their property and their lives in the Cause of Allaah as well as those who gave (them) asylum and help, – these are (all) Awliyaa to one another } to His saying { And those who disbelieve are Awliyaa of one another, (and) if you (Muslims of the whole world collectively) do not do so to make victorious Allaah’s religion of Islaamic Monotheism], there will be Fitnah (wars, battles, polytheism) and oppression on the earth, and great mischief and corruption (appearance of polytheism).}

Al Imaam ibn Katheer, may Allaah have mercy upon him, stated:

“Allaah mentioned the types of believers and categorized them into those who were thrown out of the homes and wealth and came to support the religion of Allaah and His Messenger and establish it, they spent their lives and wealth in this cause, and into Ansaar, the Muslims of Madeenah at that time; they sheltered their brothers the migrants in their homes and made them equal partners in their wealth, and they also supported the religion of Allaah and His Messenger and established His religion and battled with them. So they {are (all) Awliyaa to one another} Meaning each one of them is more rightful than anyone else to the other. {And those who disbelieve are Awliyaa of one another} When Allaah mentioned that the believers are Awliyaa of each other, He cut of the Muwaalaat between them and the disbelievers, and the meaning of the saying of Allaah {if you do not, there will be Fitnah (wars, battles, polytheism) and oppression on the earth, and great mischief and corruption} is that if you do not leave the Muwalaat of the polytheists and have Muwalaat to the believers, a Fitnah would befall the people, and it is confusion in the affair and the mixing of the disbelievers with the believers and so extensive corruption would occur.”

Sixthly: It is not permissible to categorize the believers based upon speculation, because the basis of the Muslim is that he is upon goodness, so it is not permissible to think negatively of him, Allaah said:

{O you who believe! Avoid much suspicion; indeed some suspicions are sins.}

He also said:

{O you who believe! If a Faasiq (liar – evil person) comes to you with any news, verify it, lest you should harm people in ignorance, and afterwards you become regretful for what you have done.}

So categorizing people is not permissible in totality, and it is not prohibited in totality, rather it is a detailed issue dependant on the evidence. Categorizing people according to the evidence does not mean that we cannot interact with them in what Allaah has permitted such as buying and selling, exchanging benefits, having diplomatic ties and rewarding those who do good from all the categories according to the evidence and stopping transgression between them, Allaah the Elevated said:

{and let not the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. Be just: that is nearer to piety.}

It is the Muslim’s duty towards the contradicting paths to call them to Allaah, order them with good and prohibit them from evil, and strive against them so that they may emerge from darkness into light, from disbelief into belief. They shouldn’t leave them in their errors and misguidance while they are able to put some effort into saving them; Allaah said:

{You are the best of peoples ever raised up for mankind; you enjoin Al-Ma’roof (i.e. Islaamic Monotheism and all that Islaam has ordained) and forbid Al-Munkar (polytheism, disbelief and all that Islaam has forbidden), and you believe in Allaah.}

Meaning you are the best of the people for the people.

It becomes clear from this that the categorization of people is a detailed issue, and that it is present in the Legislation and is permissible, rather it may be an obligation to clarify the truth and refute falsehood so that there is no confusion, if this wasn’t the case, then why were books authored in the topic of religions and sects such as ‘Al Farq bayn al Firaq [The Difference between the Sects]’ by al Baghdaadee, ‘Al Milal wan Nihal [Religions and Sects]’ by al Shahrastaanee, and ‘Maqaalaat al Islaamiyyeen’ by al Ash’aree and ‘Al Fasl’ by Ibn Hazm.

I say this, and Allaah is the granter of Success, and may the Salaat and Salaam be upon our Prophet Muhammed, his family and companions.

Translator: Nadir Ahmad, Abu Abdul-Waahid

The Pillars of Kufr are Four

Shaykhul Islaam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah

Reference: Fawaa`idul Fawaa`id of Ibnul-Qayyim – Page 288

Category: Creed

“The pillars of Kufr (i.e. disbelief and disobedience) are Four:

1. Kibr i.e. arrogance, which prevents him from submission, (to the command of Allah)

2. Hasad i.e. jealousy, which prevents him from accepting advice and giving it.

3. Ghadab i.e. anger, which prevents him from being just.

4. Sha`wah i.e. lowly desires, which prevents him from devoting himself totally to worship.

Hence, if the pillar of arrogance is removed then it becomes easy to submit, and if the pillar of jealousy is removed then it becomes easy for him to accept naseehah (i.e. advice) and to give advice. If the pillar of anger is removed then it becomes easy for him to be just and humble himself and if the pillar of lowly desires is removed then it becomes easy for him to be patient, chaste and devote himself to worship. Every imprudent characteristic derives from these four. And when these characteristics settle in his heart they will cause him to see falsehood as truth and to see truth as falsehood. To see Ma`roof (i.e. good) as Munkar (i.e. evil) and evil as good, and it brings him closer to the life of this world and pushes the hereafter further from him.

Uprooting strong and power mountains from their places is easier than removing these four characteristics from the heart of an individual who is tested with them. This proves especially true when these characteristics become firmly rooted and embedded in an individual to the point they become second nature, for when an individual reaches this point it is almost impossible for him to do any good deeds, nor would he purify himself with them if he were to perform any acts of good. The more he strives diligently to perform acts of good the more his actions are corrupted by these four characteristics.

If you reflect on the disbelief of the past nations, you will find that it derived from one of these four pillars, and it was due to one of these four that they were punished. However, the severity of the punishment was dependant on the degree and extent of these pillars with those nations. So, whoever adorns himself with these pillars then he subjects himself to all types of evil consequences, in the life of this world and in the hereafter. And whoever avoids them, distances himself from all types of evil, because these characteristics prevent him from Inqiyad (i. e. submission), Ikhlas (i.e. sincerity), Tawbah (i.e. repentance), accepting the truth, giving advice to the Muslims and humbling himself to Allah and to His creation.

These characteristics emerge due to the slave`s ignorance of his Lord, and his ignorance of his own self-worth or value. If he truly knew his Lord with all of His lofty characteristics and was truly aware of his own short-comings and deficiencies, he would not have a reason to be arrogant nor seek retribution for himself, nor would he be jealous of anyone because of what Allah has given them, because in reality, jealousy is a type of enmity or hostility towards Allah, primarily because the slave hates the fact that Allah has bestowed upon one of his servants a particular blessing and he ardently desires that this blessing be taken away from him. So he actually oppose and contests the decree of Allah and he deems the blessing of Allah to this slave to be unjust and dislikes for him what Allah loves for him. And it was because of this characteristic that Iblis became the enemy of Allah, i.e. his arrogance and jealousy.

Hence, to replace these two hideous and evil characteristics with sound knowledge of Allah and His uniqueness and being pleased with Him as your Lord and turning towards Him for assistance in all of his affairs, and replacing anger with true knowledge of himself and his value, and the fact that he does not have the right to get angry and seek retribution for himself, because in this is giving precedence to himself over the pleasure of his Lord and expressing anger towards his Lord, who originated him.

And the greatest thing which would assist him in ridding himself of this characteristic is to condition himself to get angry for the pleasure of Allah and to be pleased for the pleasure of Allah. And every time he gets angry or is pleased for the pleasure of Allah then anger and pleasure for other than Him will be obliterated, and the opposite is the same.

However, the cure for his lowly desires is sound knowledge and understanding that his obedience to his lowly desires is the greatest reason or hindrance for him attaining satisfaction, and his abstaining from these lowly desires is the greatest reason and means by which he can attain satisfaction. So every time he sets out to attain satisfaction by following his lowly desires he actually pushes himself further away from achieving this satisfaction, and the more he avoids his lowly desires, the closer he is to attaining the satisfaction he is looking for in the most complete manner.

So Ghadab (i.e. anger) is like a predator, the minute you turn your attention away from it, it will eat you alive.

And Shah`wah (i.e. lowly desires) is like fire, the moment he ignites it, it will begin to burn him alive.

And Kibr (i.e. arrogance) is like arguing with a king about his possession, either he will kill you because of this, or just deprive you of it.

And Hasad (i.e jealousy) is like showing enmity and hatred towards someone who is more powerful than you.

The one who can control his lowly desires and his anger will remove the Shaytan from his midst. And the he whose lowly desires and anger overtakes him deprives himself from the shade and protection of Allah.

Translator: Shadeed Muhammad, Abu Az-Zubayr


ABU DARDA – The thing I fear the most is when I stand on the Day of Judgment it will be said to me